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Non-Traditional Trademarks and the Dilemma of Aesthetic Functionality, in The Protection of Non-Traditional Marks: Critical Perspectives (Irene Calboli and Martin Senftleben, eds., forthcoming 2018)

Landmark Trademarks, 52 Wake Forest L. Rev __ (forthcoming 2017)

Copyright and Distributive Justice (with Robert P. Merges), 92 NOTRE DAME L. REV, 513 (2017)

The Limited Promise of Geographical Indications for Developing Country Farmers in Geographical Indications in the Asia-Pacific Region (Irene Calboli and Ng Wee Loon, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2017, forthcoming)

Fair Use and Its Politics - at Home and Abroad in Copyright Law in an Age of Limitations and Exceptions (Ruth Okediji, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2016, forthcoming)

Motion Pictures, Markets, and Copylocks, 23 GEORGE MASON L. REV. 941 (2016)

Understanding (and fixing) the right of fixation in copyright law, 62 J. Copy. Soc. Of U.S.A. 385 (2015)

Fair Use and Its Politics - at Home and Abroadin COPYRIGHT LAW IN AN AGE OF LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS (Ruth Okediji, ed., Cambridge University Press, 2015, forthcoming)

Cognitive and Aesthetic Functionality in Trademark Law, 36 CARDOZO L. REV. 1227 (2015)

Traditional Knowledge, Cultural Expression, and the Siren's Call of Property, 49 SAN DIEGO LAW REVIEW 1215 (2013)

The Photographer's Copyright - photograph as art, photograph as database, 25 HARVARD J. ON LAW & TECHNOLOGY 339 (2012)

A short history of 'intellectual property' in relation to copyright, 33 CARDOZO L. REV. 1293 (2012)

Locke's 1694 Memorandum (and More Incomplete Copyright Historiographies) [introductory essay], 27 CARDOZO ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 555 (2010)

Notes on the origin of 'intellectual property,' work-in-progress available on SSRN

Copyright and Its Rewards, Foreseen and Unforeseen, 122 HARV. L. REV. FORUM 81 (2009)

Created Facts and the Flawed Ontology of Copyright, 83 NOTRE DAME L. REV. 43 (2007)

American Moral Rights and Fixing the Dastar Gap, 2007 UTAH L. REV. 659 (December 2007)

Champagne, Feta, and Bourbon: the Spirited Debate about Geographical Indications, 58 HASTINGS LAW JOURNAL 299 (2006)

Copyright and Incomplete Historiographies - of Piracy, Propertization, and Thomas Jefferson, 79 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW 993 (2006)

Size Matters (or Should) in Copyright Law, 75 FORDHAM LAW REVIEW 575 (2005)

On the Logic of Suing One's Customers and the Dilemma of Infringement-Based Business Models, 23 CARDOZO ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 723 (2005)

Of World Music and Sovereign States, E-Commerce and the Formation of Legal Norms, 35 LOYOLA UNIVERSITY CHICAGO LAW JOURNAL 155 (2004)*

The Internet and the Persistence of Law, 44 BOSTON COLLEGE LAW REVIEW 359 (2003)

Fair Use Across Time, 43 UCLA LAW REVIEW 775 (2003)

How extra-copyright protection of databases can be constitutional, 28 U. DAYTON LAW REVIEW 159 (2003)

The Line Between Work and Framework, Text and Context, 18 CARDOZO ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 19 (2001)

Recoding Intellectual Property and Overlooked Audience Interest, 77 TEXAS LAW REVIEW 923 (1999)*

The Personality Interest of Artists and Inventors in Intellectual Property, 16 CARDOZO ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 81 (1998)

Foreign lis alibi pendens, Non Chinese Majority Tribunals and Other Issues of Neutrality in CIETAC Arbitrations, 13 ARBITRATION INTERNATIONAL 63 (Winter 1997)

The Philosophy of Intellectual Property, 77 GEORGETOWN LAW JOURNAL 287 (1988)


Except with LEXIS/NEXIS, WESTLAW, or HeinOnline


A New Generation of State Tax and Expenditure Limitations [with G. Reiman], 22 HARVARD JOURNAL ON LEGISLATION 269 (1985)*

Group Speech Acts, 7 LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY 379 (1984)*


Fulfilling Trump's promise on trade law enforcement? The Hill, 29 December 2016

What will it take to fulfill Trump's promise on trade law enforcement? Sacramento Bee, 27 November 2016

Why do we still buy oil from thugs? - a review of Leif Wenar's "Blood Oil" (2016), Los Angeles Review of Books, 11 August 2016

Dear Brits: Don't Listen to the U.S. on "Brexit," Los Angeles Times, 15 June 2016

John Kasich's fantastic run for vice president, THE HILL, 23 February 2016

Ohio Gov. John Kasich is really running for vice president, LOS ANGELES DAILY NEWS, 11 February 2016

Copyright Experts in Washington, IP VIEWPOINTS Series, The Media Institute, Washington, D.C., 29 January 2015, available at

Making Copyright Policy in Washington, THE HILL- CONGRESS BLOG, Washington, D.C., 23 January 2015,

How (Dis)respected Is Copyright Law?, IP VIEWPOINTS Series, The Media Institute, Washington, D.C., 13 December 2011

Copyright, Trademark, and the Ninth Circuit's Flirtations With 'Aesthetic Functionality', IP VIEWPOINTS Series, The Media Institute, Washington, D.C., 22 September 2011

True Authors and the Work-for-Hire Doctrine, Part I, IP VIEWPOINTS Series, The Media Institute, Washington, D.C., 25 March 2010

Network Neutrality and the Copyright Wildcard, The Media Institute, 2 October 2009

Election Copyright - Campaign Ad Smackdown, The Media Institute, 20 July 2009

Election Copyright - "You Press the Button, We Do the Rest," The Media Institute, 6 May 2009

LONDON ECONOMIST debate - Copyrights and wrongs, 5-15 May 2009 [with William Fisher III]
      - opening statements
      - rebuttals
      - closing statements

Election Copyright - They're Playing Our Song, The Media Institute, 14 April 2009


English translation of Tea Board of India v. DuSong, Court of Appeals of Paris, 05/20050, Decision of 22 November 2006 (with D. Artal), 28 CARDOZO ARTS & ENT. L. J. 431 (2010)

English translation of SABAM v. S.A. Scarlet, District Court of Brussels, No. 04/8975/A, Decision of 29 June 2007, published in CAELJ Translation Series #001 (with F. Mady and J. Bourrouilhou), 25 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L. J. 1279 (2008)

TRANSLATIONS [to other languages]

知识产权哲学[The Philosophy of Intellectual Property - Chinese version] 2 CHINESE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY REVIEW 1 (2006) [Mr. Yang Cairan and Professor Zhang Ping, translators]

* * * * * [The Spirited Debate about Geographical Indications - Japanese version] Intellectual Property Law and Policy Journal, University of Hokkaido (forthcoming) [Professor Tetsuya Imamura, translator]